Python can be used just like a pocket calculator. In addition to addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, you can calculate exponents and logarithms with Python. Exponent and logarithm functions are imported from the **math** module which is part of the Python *Standard Library*. This means all the functions in the **math** module are available in any Python installation.

In this short post, you'll learn how to calculate exponents and logarithms in Python.

## Exponent and Logarithm Functions¶

The following exponent and logarithm functions can be imported from Python's math module:

`log`

`log10`

`exp`

`e`

`pow(x,y)`

`sqrt`

`log`function calculates the natural log of a number. Python's

`log10`function calculates the base-10 log of a number. Python doesn't have an

`ln`function, use

`log`for natural logarithms.

Let's try a couple of examples. In the examples below, the `>>>`

prompt is not meant to be typed. `>>>`

is used to denote the Python REPL or Python prompt. Alternatively, you can enter these examples into a Jupyter notebook code cell. Note how the first line of code imports logarithm and power functions from Python's `math`

module.

```
>>> from math import log, log10, exp, e, pow, sqrt
>>> log(3.0*e**3.4) # note: natural log
4.4986122886681095
```

Now let's try a problem: A right triangle has side lengths 3 and 4. What is the length of the hypotenuse?

```
>>> sqrt(3**2 + 4**2)
5.0
```

The power function `pow()`

works like the `**`

operator. `pow()`

raises a number to a power.

```
>>> 5**2
25
```

```
>>> pow(5,2)
25.0
```

## Summary¶

The following exponent and logarithm functions are part of Python's **math** module:

Math function | Name | Description | Example | Result |
---|---|---|---|---|

`math.e` |
Euler's number | mathematical constant $e$ | `math.e` |
`2.718` |

`math.exp()` |
exponent | $e$ raised to a power | `math.exp(2.2)` |
`9.025` |

`math.log()` |
natural logarithm | log base $e$ | `math.log(3.1)` |
`400` |

`math.log10()` |
base 10 logarithm | log base 10 | `math.log10(100)` |
`2.0` |

`math.pow()` |
power | raises a number to a power | `math.pow(2,3)` |
`8.0` |

`math.sqrt()` |
square root | square root of a number | `math.sqrt(16)` |
`4.0` |

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